At the same time, the country has experienced high population growth — from 11 million people in to around 45 million in Population growth remains high, at nearly 3 pct. If this growth rate continues, there will be 53 million Tanzanians in and million in Economic growth and decades of massive international aid have created many good results, but it is important to recall that the growth began from a very low starting point and that poverty in Tanzania has proven extremely stubborn.
The peoples of Zanzibar, their customs and religious beliefs
More than two-thirds of the population live below the internationally recognized income poverty line of USD 1. Around one-third live below the "basic needs poverty line" corresponding to around USD 0.
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Due to population growth, however, this relative decrease still means that the actual number of people living below the poverty line has remained relatively constant level of million Tanzanians. Official surveys show a constant level of inequality from to Gini 0. The modest reduction in poverty illustrates that economic growth has not been sufficiently broad-based. Growth is concentrated in telecommunications, financial services, retail trade, mining, tourism, construction and manufacturing.
While growth was formerly driven largely by public spending and international aid, this is no longer the case.
Growth today is generated mainly by the private sector, but the sectors with the highest rates of growth are predominantly capital-intensive and concentrated in large urban areas. Growth has largely failed to affect the great challenges, generating more employment and additional jobs in all parts of society and improving incomes for the vast majority of the population. One major cause for the lack of poverty reduction despite economic growth is that Tanzania has not succeeded in raising productivity in agriculture over the last decades.
Tanzania remains predominantly agricultural, with three quarters of the population living in rural areas. The birth rates in rural areas are high 6. While donors and the government have used significant resources to improve the social sectors, similar necessary support has not been given to agriculture and other productive sectors.
Lack of secure land tenure to ensure that the traditional users in the rural districts do not lose their land is one of the most essential issues, constraining investments that could enhance productivity. Processing of food and other agricultural produce and other forms of manufacturing is also very limited in the rural areas creating very few additional employment opportunities.
For the same reason, Tanzania is experiencing significant out-migration of young people from low productivity agriculture to urban informal service sectors, where productivity is just as low. Unemployment is high and growing rapidly, especially in the urban areas and among youth. In addition, one-third of those employed are so-called "working poor": technically employed, but whose income is less than the basic needs poverty line of USD 0. They often work either in farming or in the urban informal service sector in low-productivity, part-time jobs.
An estimated , new young job-seekers enter the labour market each year, but only a fraction of them have a realistic possibility of obtaining a stable job that can give them the possibility to provide for a family. The flow from countryside to city of rural-urban migration will continue in years ahead, and Dar es Salaam is already one of the fastest growing cities in Africa. In sharp contrast to the largely stagnating extreme poverty, Tanzania has seen the emergence of a small, but growing urban middle class.
The Government is working hard to meet these demands, through for instance, large subsidies for cheap electricity, comprehensive tax exemptions to foreign and national companies as well as government employees, and large non-taxed per diem allowances for civil servants. This can threaten the continued peace and stability as well as social cohesion in Tanzania. However, the benefits to be derived from the exploitation of natural resources will not significantly materialize for another 10 years or so, and it is crucial to ensure macroeconomic management.
In recent years, the Government has increased its use of both interest-bearing and low interest concessional borrowing. The debt continues to grow rapidly, with corresponding increase in debt servicing and repayment. There is especially a need for greater openness in public contracts and procurement.
Poverty cannot be measured simply by examining income distribution and distribution of assets alone. The official statistics focus only on private consumption and therefore underestimate the importance of consumption of public goods. The statistics thus underestimate the improvements achieved in recent years.
The Tanzanian government has chosen to spend significant resources on provision of public goods to the population. As a consequence, access to water, education and health services have improved substantially over the last decades. Today, Tanzania is one of the few low-income countries that are close to achieving universal primary education. In the health sector, general success has been achieved in extending access to basic health services, and the results can be seen in the increasing number of children who survive.
Current and future challenges and opportunities in Tanzania
There have been declines in both infant mortality rate the official child mortality rate as well as in mortality for children under five years of age. However, there continue to be major challenges in reducing maternal mortality. Public spending on education has increased substantially in recent years, whereas health expenditures have declined, both in absolute value and as a share of the national budget. Across all social sectors, there are major and sustained needs to increase the quality of services offered.
The massive expansion of coverage and the attempt to reach out to everyone with education and health services, has reduced the quality of services across the board. Recent studies show comprehensive and persistent quality problems in both primary and secondary education, the consequence being that pupils leave school with entirely inadequate skills. The quality of primary health care has been negatively affected by a range of factors, including shortage and poor distribution of health workers, poor access to essential medicines and poor infrastructure.
This situation is further affected by the rapidly growing population. One of the signs that the quality of healthcare services is inadequate is seen in the fact that there has been only a very slight increase in the proportion of women, who give birth at a public health institution. This is a significant improvement, but it is still just over half the positions which are occupied.
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Access to social services continues to be unequally distributed. For both health and education, there are significant disparities in access to services and in the distribution of public expenditures to different groups in society. This concerns differences between rich and poor, where one lives in the country and differences between rural and urban areas. National traditions of Tanzania. Habits, mentality and the way of living Tanzania is an amazing and paradoxical country if we compare its culture and relations with the rest of the world.
On the one hand, its population mainly consists of representatives of indigenous tribes. There are about different tribes on the territory of the state.
On the other hand, Tanzania is the freest and most liberal African country in terms of religion and attitudes towards tourists. Over the centuries, the country was under the yoke of the Arab conquerors. It was an English colony too. More than half of the mainland natives call themselves Christians. For active traveler - national parks, landscapes and nature of Tanzania. National parks and reserves are the main wealth of Tanzania. Mufindi Highland Lodge. Greystoke Mahale Kungwe Beach Lodge. Vuma Hills Tented Camp. Chada Katavi Katavi Wilderness Camp. KiSwahili and English are the official languages and spoken by most people living in Tanzania; as well as this, there are many ethnic groups, speaking localised languages and dialects.