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The literature has also indicated that confidence in internet and computer skills was another factor related to e-government adoption. Having the required skills to use the technology is necessary to ensure the success of any technology usage Dugdale et al. Word of mouth WOM , wasta favoritism , and resistance to change are other factors that should be considered when exploring factors related to e-government adoption by the citizenry. There is a lack of studies in the literature investigating the role of these three factors on technology and e-government adoption.
This study therefore will be a useful resource and a valuable addition to the literature about technological and e-government adoption. Word of mouth has captured the attention of many marketing researchers who have considered WOM to be a commanding medium for publicity Arndt, ; Westbrook, This paper acknowledges the importance of word of mouth in the electronic context in general and in e-government in particular. Therefore, it is very important to highlight its influence on e-government adoption.
In researching WOM with respect to technology adoption, Kim and Prabhakar conducted a survey-based study which revealed the intermediate influence of WOM on the adoption of internet banking.
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The current research paper is investigating the impact of word of mouth on another technological innovation that is e-government. Wasta is one of the underlying characteristics of social life and networks in Arabic countries Makhoul and Harrison , In wasta, people deploy their interpersonal connections in order to obtain advantages that would not otherwise be obtainable.
Several studies have been conducted to address the issues of wasta within different contexts Al Awadhi and Morris, ; Makhoul and Harrison, In the technological context, Al Awadhi and Morris provided a qualitative focus group-based study that indicated that wasta was one of the significant factors related to e-government adoption in the Middle Eastern country of Kuwait. Resistance to change is one of the terms that has been identified and clarified mainly in the managerial and organizational context.
Ebbers et al highlighted the importance of investigating the resistance to e-government innovations. Sathye proved the necessity of investigating the role of resistance to change in adopting the technological innovation, internet banking, through a survey-based study which examined the factors influencing the adoption of internet banking by Australian consumers. To sustain a comprehensive understanding of e-government adoption in Jordan, it was necessary to introduce the theoretical framework used in this research paper in the following section. Following is a brief presentation on these theories.
Based on the characteristics of innovation, researchers studying the adoption of information technology have utilized the Diffusion of Innovation Theory DOI to discuss information technology innovation. These are:. Previous research has recognized the importance of relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity in investigating the adoption of different technological innovations including e-government Carter and Belanger, ; Ojha et al. Previous studies have confirmed the applicability of using the aforementioned constructs to research e-government adoption Carter and Blanger, ; Chang et al.
In previous research Alomari, ; Alomari et al. Based on qualitative and quantitative studies, the authors found that relative advantage, complexity, and PU played a significant role when they investigated the adoption of e-government websites in Jordan. Thus, a modified version of these theories will be examined in this paper by investigating in depth the applicability of the aforementioned constructs to study the adoption of e-government services with the services of two government departments, ISTD and DVLD, selected for study.
Based on a quantitative based survey, new data sets with a new sample were collected to conduct the current study.
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The following section illustrates the method used in this research paper. This section introduces the main demographic characteristics of the sample used and also details of the survey utilized to conduct the study. Purposive sampling was used in the current study. This kind of sample is used when the purpose is to gain information from particular target groups Tashakkori and Teddlie , Of the respondents, Of the sample, 3. Among respondents, The majority of respondents were generally employees: Most of the respondents Internet usage at home and work recorded the highest percentage, This study used a survey to determine the factors related to e-government adoption in Jordan.
To develop a greater understanding of e-government adoption in Jordan, two survey instruments were designed for the two government departments:. The same item scales were used in the two instruments. The survey consisted of 53 scale items which were designed to examine different factors. Some items were self-developed items with their design based on a literature review and research project conducted by Alomari These items were reworded to make them more suitable for Jordanian participants. As English is not the first language of Jordan, with most people not fluent in English, the questionnaire was translated into Arabic by an accredited translator.
A panel of experienced people then reviewed the translations to ensure accuracy and integrity.
Challenges of Expanding Internet: E-Commerce, E-Business, and E-Government
A back-translation was also utilized and reviewed to ensure the credibility of the questionnaire after its translation, firstly from English to Arabic and then from Arabic to English. A panel of experienced e-government researchers reviewed and approved the final questionnaire. This section reports the results of factor analyses undertaken to identify the main factors related to e-government adoption in Jordan. It describes factor analysis and its reliability. To first analyse the results of the survey, exploratory factor analysis was conducted for each independent variable and the dependent variable.
Prior to performing axial component analysis, the suitability of data for factor analysis was assessed. Inspection of the correlation matrix revealed the presence of many coefficients of 0. The Kaiser—Meyer—Oklin values were above 0.
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Axial components analysis was conducted with Varimax rotation. The axial factor analysis revealed the presence of 3, 8, 3, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5, 4, and 5 components with eigenvalues exceeding 1 for trust in the internet, website design, belief, internet and computer skill confidence, word of mouth, resistance to change, perceived usefulness, relative advantage, complexity, and e-government adoption, respectively.
According to the general rule of thumb, only those factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 should be considered important for analysis purposes Hair et al. The screenplot for the aforementioned variables was inspected. Thus, the variables which showed a strong loading in this study: trust in the internet, website design, religious beliefs, internet and computer skill confidence, word of mouth, resistance to change, perceived usefulness, relative advantage, complexity, e-government adoption.
It was decided to eliminate the factor of wasta from any further analysis. Table 1 shows the loading for the different constructs. Table 2 introduces the major components of the exploratory factor analysis and the reliability analysis.